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PATERNITY TESTING

This a test that is done to determine the biological father of a child .Many a times women tend to give ownership of children to men who they think is suitable to take care of the child or some married women just cheat on their husbands and get pregnant then just pretend that the pregnancy belongs to her husband not her lover while some men upon having small houses are alleged to father children who are not theirs simply because of his wealth and capability to take care of the child. This test involves comparison of the child `s genes with those of the alleged father`s using the 22 genetic markers .Paternity test is carried out between the child and the alleged father either in the absence or presence of the mother. In Peace of mind paternity tests the mother can either be present or absent while in legal cases the mother has to be present. Paternity tests solve cases of maintenance, inheritance as well as show the biological father of the child. In paternity tests the child and alleged father`s samples are the ones tested and DNA compared.

MATERNITY TESTING

This is a test done to determine the true biological mother of the child .Such cases emanate as a result of adoption or surrogacy. When a child is adopted and then later on the biological mother comes to claim her child from the adoptees and in the quest of proving the biological mother, a maternity test can be carried out between the child and the two mothers .This test establishes unquestionably the maternal link between mother and child .This test is 100 % conclusive for exclusion and gives very accurate results.

ANCESTRY

It is a test for people interested in family history (genealogy) to go beyond what they can learn from relatives or from historical documentation. Examination of DNA variations can provide clues about where a person's ancestors might have come from and about relationships between families. Certain patterns of genetic variation are often shared among people of particular backgrounds. The more closely related two individuals, families, or populations are, the more patterns of variation they typically share.

Three types of genetic ancestry testing are commonly used for genealogy:

Y CHROMOSOME TESTING

Variations in the Y chromosome, passed exclusively from father to son, can be used to explore ancestry in the direct male line. Y chromosome testing can only be done on males, because females do not have a Y chromosome. Because the Y chromosome is passed on in the same pattern as are family names in many cultures, Y chromosome testing is often used to investigate questions such as whether two families with the same surname are related.

MITOCHONDRIAL DNA TESTING

This type of testing identifies genetic variations in mitochondrial DNA. Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the cell nucleus, cell structures called mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA (known as mitochondrial DNA). Both males and females have mitochondrial DNA, which is passed on from their mothers, so this type of testing can be used by either sex. It provides information about the direct female ancestral line. Mitochondrial DNA testing can be useful for genealogy because it preserves information about female ancestors that may be lost from the historical record because of the way surnames are often passed down.

Single nucleotide polymorphism testing

These tests evaluate large numbers of variations (single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs) across a person’s entire genome. The results are compared with those of others who have taken the tests to provide an estimate of a person's ethnic background.

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